The Forster (Fuster), Tobler, and Züblin Families

Barbara Dukes, wife of Joseph Dukes at the time of his death, was born Barbara Forster, daughter of Johannes Forster and Elizabeth Tobler Foster.[1] This was Joseph’s second wife who came from a group of Carolina settlers who originated in Appezell Ausserrhoden and St. Gallen, CH. The related Tobler and Züblin families were prominent in both Switzerland and South Carolina. They had many ties to frontier settlement and Indian trade. Before marrying Joseph, Barbara was married to Jacob Brunson and then to Robert Lammons, both of whom were also from families deeply involved in the Indian trade.

Barbara’s father, Johannes Forster, was born to Caspar Forster and his second wife Anna Züblin on 28 Jan 1692 at Oberuzwil, St. Gallen, Switzerland. Caspar Furster (1646/49-11 Dec 1725) was the son of Georg Furster and Barbara Kruesi. Caspar married 1) Catharina Zwicki, 2) Anna Zueblin, and 3) Anna Baumann.

Elizabeth Tobler, mother of Barbara Forster, was the daughter of Ulrich Tobler of Orangeburgh Township and the sister of Johannes Tobler, former Landeshauptman of Appenzell Ausserrhoden, and founder of New Windsor Township on the Savannah River near modern Beech Island.

In 1735 300 acres were surveyed for John Forster adjacent Ulrich Tobler in Orangeburgh Township (South Carolina Colonial Plat Book 9, page 454).[2] The number of acres that was granted indicates that Forster was accompanied by five others, each receiving a 50 acre head right. The identities of all but one are known: John Forster, his wife Elizabeth Tobler Fuster, son John Fuster, and daughters Barbara Fuster and Salome Fuster.

John Forster and Ulrich Tobler were listed among those receiving 1736 town lot grants in Orangeburg.[3] In 1736 John “Hysenhood” (Eisenhut) received a 200 acre land grant adjacent Peter Fauré and John Forster on the Edisto River (South Carolina Colonial Plat Book 9:494).[4]

After the death of John Forster, on Tuesday 19 Nov 1741 “Elizabeth Fusterin, widow” was married to Christian Swartz, in the presence of Kilian Abecklin, John Fuster and 2 children.[5] Joop Giessendanner’s translation:

Anno 1741 (top of the page)

Thursday the 19th of November after one

single announcement were privately married by me

24. Christian Shwartz and Elsbeth Fuster

maiden name Tobler, late Mr. Johannes Fuster's

(dec'd.) widow in the presence of

Kilian Abecklin, Johannes Fuster and all other remaining

children on both sides

The remaining children on the Forster side presumably included Barbara and Salome Forster.

Samuel Davis was married to Salome Forster, sister of Barbara Forster and daughter of Johannes Forster. Rev. Giessendanner performed their marriage before his trip to England.[6]

John Forster, brother of Barbara and Salome, married Sarah Hatcher, daughter of Seth Hatcher, in 1741.[7] After the death of John Fuster, Sarah Hatcher Fuster remarried to John Clayton and was the mother of his many children. By 1749/50, we have the following record:[8]

Sirrah, daughter of John and Sirrah Clayton; born April 30th a. c. Susceptr. William Pendarvis, Sirah, wife of William Cooper, and Mary, wife of David Rumph.

Barbara Forster’s Marriages

Barbara’s first marriage was to Jacob Brunson, from the Brunson family of Goose Creek, SC.

Joop Giessendanner’s transcription and translation of Rev. Giessendanner’s Book of Record reports:

Anno 1738

On 26. January have married Jacob Pruncen to Miss Barbara Furster, daughter of Johannes Furster, Tinter (Hans Ulrich Giessendanner, the elder) Färber = tinter, usually dyes color in cloth or leather

Their son Isaac was baptised in 1749/50:[9]

(45.) On Sunday, October 28th Isaac, son of Jacob and Barbara Brunzon; born ____. Susceptr. Abraham Yssenhut. Samuel Davis, and ____ wife of Elias Snell.

Hannah Brunson’s baptism was not recorded by Rev. Giessendanner.

Note that Abraham Eisenhut, father of Joseph Dukes’ first wife Margaret Eisenhut Dukes, was a sponsor for the baptism of the child of Barbara Forster Brunson from her first marriage.

It is not known precisely where Barbara lived when married to Jacob Brunson, but it may have been on Miller Creek in what is now Barnwell County.[10]

Subsequently, Barbara married Robert Lammons in 1751. From Rev, Giessendanner’s Book of Record:

18. On Tuesday May 28th In Ditto ----  By Ditto Robert Lammon To Barbara, late Widow of Jacob Brunzon, deceased: Both living upon Edistoe River: Being present: Michael Christopher Row,  Joseph Grieffous, Samuel Davis

Michael Christopher Rowe was an Orangeburg Indian trader situated near what isnow Rowesville. Samuel Davis was Barbara’s brother-in-law.

There is no Giessendanner record of Lammons children born to this couple.

There is no record of the marriage of Joseph Dukes and Barbara Forster, but three of their children were baptized by Rev. Giessendanner and appear in those records.

Hannah, wife of the Jonathon Johnston mentioned in Barbara Dukes’ will as her daughter, is identified as the grandaughter of Johannes Fuster in Charleston Co SC Deed Book K-3:255, 26 Feb 1765. This was a deed from Jonathon Johnson and wife Hannah to Henry Felder for the 300 acres granted 17 Sep 1736 to John (Johannes) Fuster. This was the property immediately north of that of John Eisenhut. The deed book indicates that Hannah was the “only” grandchild, but this is an obvious error.

On 26 Feb 1765 the following was recorded (Charleston County SC Deed Book K-3, page 255):

 Jonathon Johnston and Hannah, his wife, of below Orangeburg to Henry Felder of Orangeburg Township for 35 pounds, sold 300 acres granted 17 Sep 1736 to John Fuster and adjoins SE on vacant land, NW on Ulrich Tobler, SW on Pon Pon River, SE on Ulrich Spice & John Hysenhood. Said Hannah, wife of Jonathon Johnston, being the only grandchild of Fuster. Wit. Isham Clayton, John Simmons, William (x) Aldridge. Before Christopher Rowe, J.P. 2 May 1768. Recorded 7 Jul 1768 by Fenwick Bull, Reg.

Henry Felder recorded a memorial of this transaction on July 8, 1768.[11]

In 1761 Ulrich Tobler “of New Windsor” sold land adjacent John Forster that was granted to him in 1736 (South Carolina Colonial Plat Book 20, page 358).[12]

Brunson Family

John Brunson and his first wife, Francis Hills, were early settlers in the Hartford, CT, area, having arrived there in 1635. John Brunson’s son John Jr. moved to South Carolina in 1692, setting near the Dorchester settlers from MA in the area below Goose Creek. Brothers Abraham and Isaac Brunson, sons of John Brunson Jr., and Hannah Scott, filed for land grants in Berkeley County, 100 acres each, on the same day on 15 Sep 1705.[13] Jonathan Fitch II (brother of Tobias Fitch) and his wife Ann Elliott Fitch subsequently referenced the Brunson land in a 1715 sale of adjacent property.[14] One parcel was at the head of “Yeamansee” Creek (Goose Creek) bounding S and E on lands of Abraham “Horee delaplan.” [Abraham Fleury de la Plaine; father of Marianne Dugué, widow of Jacques Dugué].  The other parcel was described as bounding NE and SE on Dr. Isaac Porcher, SW on Gabriel Glaze, dec., NW on Isaac Brunson, Abraham Brunson and Moses Way, and on lands of Dorchester called “Rosue” Land (Rose Land).

Rev. Giessendanner recorded the marriages of “Jonathan Brimstone and Martha Pickings.” Jonathan Brimstone is Jonathan Brunson, brother of Jacob Brunson and brother-in-law of Barbara Fuster Brunson Lammons (later Dukes).

The name of the “Pickings” was actually Pickering. The Pickering family appears in several contexts associated with the Dukes family. Giessendanner also married Samuel “Pickings” and N[name unknown] Patton in 1747. Om 1749 Samuel Pickering was a witness to the marriage of John Fitch and Ann Holmes.

1748/9. Januar: 16th. Matrimonio copulati Sunt:

 John Fitch et Ann Holmes: Presentibus: Will.m Clement

 Samuel Pickings

William Clements, who witnessed the wedding of John Fitch and Ann  Holmes, along with Samuel Pickering, was also married by Giessendanner: “William Clement January 28th. To Mary Callyhon, Widow, 1747”

An earlier Samuel Pickering of Charleston was a merchant and was involved in transactions with Edward Weekley of Goose Creek, whose son Thomas later settled in Amelia.

References in Joop Giessendanner’s transcription of the Book of Record (http://www.xs4all.nl/~sail/orange/a-index.html) reflect the many parish listings for the Brunson family in Orangeburgh in the 1750s:

mar = marriage; bapt = baptism; bur = burial; comm = communion date = ddmmyy

mar jonathan brimstone x martha pickings   BEF 1749

bapt isaac Brunzon             28.10.1750

bapt abraham brunson       27.01.1751

mar robert lammon x barbara brunzon (widow)            28.05.1751

bapt alexander Brunzon     30.06.1751

bapt rachel Brunzon           30.06.1751

bapt sirrah Brunzon            30.06.1751

bapt peter brunson            17.02.1755

bapt elizabeth Brunzon      02.11.1755

bapt william Brunzon         02.11.1755

bapt rebeccah Brunzon     02.01.1757

bapt martha Brunzon         02.01.1757

bapt susannah Brunzon     02.01.1757

bapt joshiah cantey            24.03.1760

Lammons Family

The Lammons family had connections with the Indian trade. Francis Lammons, apparently brother of Barbara’s husband Robert, was recorded as Francis Lemmon, member of the 7th Company, Beach Hill District, St. Paul’s Parish, militia of 1756, in the Cherokee wars.[15] Francis Lammons incurred regular expenses arising from supplying goods to Indians, expenses that were subsequently reimbursed by the House of Assembly. Expenses appear in House records of 19 Jan 1748-29 Jun 1748, accompanied by claims by Joseph and Samuel Wragg, George Haig, and Herman Geiger, among others.[16] He was also approved for partial reimbursement on 8 Mar 1748 and 22 Mar 1748 for provisions for the men who accompanied the Governor on his interview with the Indians at Ninety Six.[17] On 26 Jan 1750 the House considered his claims for provisions supplied to the Creek Indians, another for provisions supplied to the “Notchee, Chickesaw, and Chactaw Indians”, another claim for provisions supplied the “Chactaw”, and another for provisions to the “Chikesaw.” These claims were found to be excessive, and were reduced to £104 17S 6p.[18] Francis Lamons’ claims continued through 1752.[19]

From the 1747 baptismal records by Rev. Giessendanner:

March 1st. In the House of Mr. Thomas Fort

John, Son of Leonhard and Sarrah Warnedow

Goss: John Fitz, Mrs. Lammons and for Want of another Me

 “Warnedow” is Varnedo. From the OGSGS website: “Varnadoe - Limouise, France. *On 1 Aug 1758 Leonard Vernadeau granted 200 acres Orangeburgh (SC) Township.” Leonard Varnado began his career in South Carolina as a fur and whiskey trader, having obtained his license in 1736. He married Sarah Hutto, daughter of Isaac and Mary Catharina Hutto (later Mell) on 25 May 1742 and became a soldier at Ft. Moore adjacent New Windsor, the township founded by Johannes Tobler, uncle of Barbara Fuster. In 1758 he was granted land on the south fork of the Edisto River in Orangeburgh Township; he later moved to Rocky Swamp Creek in Orangeburgh District.[20] Mary Catharina Hutto Mell, Leonard Varnedau’s mother-in-law, was a baptismal sponsor for Barbara Fuster’s first child with Joseph Dukes, George Alexander Dukes.

 The baptismal sponsors above are John Fitch, son of Tobias and Marianne Dugué Fitch of Goose Creek, and “Mrs. Lammons.” Barbara Fuster Brunson did not marry Robert Lammons until 1751, so this must be the wife of Francis Lammons, Elizabeth Baird Lammons, originally of Goose Creek.[21] Francis and Elizabeth were married by Giessendanner in about 1747. John Fitch, son of Tobias Fitch and Marianne Dugue Fitch, was involved in trade with Indians in western South Carolina. In 1755 he wrote to George Cadogan regarding encounters with the Chickasaw near Augusta.[22] He lived at Augusta, where he was a substantial landowner, and was at times accused of selling liquor to the Creeks.[23]

The Giessendanner Book of Record for the parish centered in Orangeburgh shows that John Fitch married Ann Holmes on 16 Jan 1748/49 in Orangeburgh County. William Clement and Samuel Pickings were listed as witnesses (the best translation is found in the Orangeburgh Book of Record at http://www.xs4all.nl/~sail/orange/17490116.html). The original:

1748/9. Januar: 16th. Matrimonio copulati Sunt:

 John Fitch et Ann Holmes: Presentibus: Will.m Clement

 Samuel Pickings

The original page on which this record appears contains the notation “Jonathan Brimstone and Martha Pickings.” This marriage is that of Jonathan Brunson, brother of Jacob Brunson and brother-in-law of Barbara Forster Brunson.

Lemon’s/Lemmon’s Creek might have been the location of the Varnado wedding. A Jacob Valk deed of 10 Dec 1779 transfered 500 acres "in Colleton County on a branch of the little Saltcatcher Swamp known by the name of Lemons's Swamp, adj. land granted to Thomas Ford known by the name of Cedar Springs."[24] The 1775 Mouzon map pinpoints the location of five plantations owned by Fords, but only one on the Little Salkehatchie. It's around Denmark, SC, just south of South Fork of Edisto, and it is indeed near Lemon’s Creek. Lemon’s Creek is a major tributary of the Little Salkehatchie, and extends from the vicinity of Denmark, SC, south and east to enter the Little Salkehatchie about 10 miles below the modern town of Bamberg, SC. “Brunston” Swamp is immediately west of Lemon’s Creek.

The Lemon’s Creek area is familiar in another important Dukes family context. It is the location from which the James Dukes family, accompanied by the Tuckers and Mileys, moved on to Mississippi. The 1810 Barnwell County tax return (SCMAR summer 1991, No. 3) lists neighbors Paul Johnson (who married one of Barbara Forster’s daughters), James Tucker (who immigrated to MS with James Dukes), William Pendarvis (who owed money to Barbara Forster at the time of her death), “Arick” (Eric) Johnson (probably a son of one of the Johnson-Brunson couples), and Robert Miley (who went to MS with the Dukes and Tuckers), all close associates of Barbara Fuster and Joseph Dukes. Abraham Brunson, son of Jonathan Brunson and Martha Pickering Brunson, also lived in the Lemon’s Creek area.

The Toblers

In 1735 Ulrich Tobler immigrated to Orangeburgh Township, where his daughter Elizabeth became the bride of Johannes Forster. He received 250 acres and Lot No. 267 in Orangeburgh Township. His property was immediately above that of Johannes Forster and near those of John Eisenhut, John Sturzenegger, and the first Orangeburgh settler, the “hatmaker of James Island”, John Hearn.[25]

In 1736 Ulrich’s son Johannes Tobler left Switzerland to found New Windsor Township on the Savannah, accompanied Rev. Bartholomäus Zuberbühler. The Toblers were from Rehetobel, Appenzell, while Zuberbühler was from nearby Gais, Appenzell (also home of the Eisenhut family). (The Toblers and Zuberbühlers were related through the 17th century marriage of Heinrich Tobler and Barbel Zuberbühler of Herisau.) Johann Tobler had been Landeshauptmann (approximately a governor) of Appenzell Ausserrhoden and leader of the aristocratic party, but was deposed. Zuberbühhler had lost his Reformed church post for opposing French influence in the canton.[26] John Tobler’s 1753 description of Carolina is available on-line at http://www.rootsweb.com/~scogsgs/toblr.htm.

In 1767, Johannes Tobler of New Windsor was dead and his estate was administered by his son-in-law John Zubly and grandson John Jacob Sturzenegger:

Series Number: S136002 

Box: 074A 

Item: 0547A 

Date: 1767

Description: ZUBLY, JOHN JOACHIM AND JOHN JACOB STURZENEGGER, EXORS. OF JOHN TOBLER VS JOHN SWEET, JUDGMENT ROLL.

ZUBLY, JOHN JOACHIM//STURZENEGGER, JOHN JACOB//TOBLER, JOHN/SWEET, JOHN/

Type: JUDGMENT-ROLL//

John Sturzenegger owned land in Orangeburgh near that of Ulrich Tobler, Johannes Eisenhut and Johannes Forster. He was the son of John Jacob Sturzenegger and Elizabeth Tobler. Elizabeth was the daughter of Johann Tobler and Ann Zellweger, the granddaughter of Ulrich Tobler, and the first cousin of Barbara Forster Dukes. Sturzenegger was born in Gais, Appenzell Ausserrhoden, home town of the Eisenhut family.

The Züblins

Barbara Forster’s paternal grandmother was Elizabeth Züblin, and additional maternal ties to the Züblin family developed in South Carolina. The Züblin family appeared in South Carolina records with the immigration of Joachim Züblin’s father. David “Zublie” registered a plat for 600 acres in Purrysburgh Township on 25 Oct 1737. A grant for this property was dated 14 Dec 1739.[27] However, it was to be several years before David was joined by his son Joachim, who remained in Switzerland to complete his studies. He was licensed to preach while in Switzerland, and while in London was ordained in August 1744 in the German [Reformed] Church.[28] He sailed for South Carolina on the John in July 1745.[29]

Joachim Züblin’s first congregations in the colonies were at Vernonsburg and Acton, GA. However, in 1746 Züblin needed more financial support, having married Anna Tobler, daughter of Johannes Tobler.[30] The 1749 will of William Hendrick[31] shows that Züblin moved from Georgia to the Wappetaw Independent Congregation north of Charleston no later than November 1749.

This is evidence against the assertion that Züblin was in residence as minister of a congregation at Amelia or on the Four Holes in Orangeburgh District during the late 1740’s.[32] Various authors have followed Hazelius[33] in stating that Züblin preached at a church in Amelia during the late 1740’s. An alternative version states that he founded a Reformed church at “Four Hole Creek on the Lower Edisto River.”[34] However, it is likely that Züblin visited the Amelia and Four Holes areas and preached occasionally when visiting friends and relatives.[35]

In 1760 Züblin accepted a position as pastor of the Independent Presbyterian Church of Savannah.[36] After moving to Savannah, Züblin continued to visit Charleston. Züblin’s journal during this period mentions the Legaré family of Wappetaw, A. Bacot, and brothers Henry and Arthur Perroneau.[37] Züblin also was acquainted with the well-known political figure and slave dealer, Henry Laurens.[38]

Züblin’s personal library is said to have numbered more than 2,000 volumes, and in 1774 he was awarded an honorary doctor of divinity degree by the College of New Jersey (now Princeton University). On 7 Jul 1775 Züblin was selected to be among those representing Georgia at the Second Continental Congress. John Adams, who later served as second president of the United States, commented in his diary that Züblin was of “warm and zealous spirit.”[39] However, Züblin argued that the colonies should remain under the British crown, but should have their own independent Parliament. In this, he foreshadowed the ideas that ultimately led to the establishment of the British Commonwealth. In 1776 Züblin left Savannah. Much of his property was confiscated. He remained with friends and relatives in South Carolina until 1778, when the British capture of Savannah permitted his return there.

In 1781 Züblin died in Savannah. In his will (Charleston Will Book WW 1790-1783, p. 190) he speaks bitterly of his treatment following his departure from the Congress.[40]

 

This document is copyright © 2007 by Lynn Teague. All rights reserved. The copyright must appear on all copies.

 

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[1] Many thanks to Randy Floyd for identifying her as this individual.

[2] Hendrix, Ge Lee Hendrix. The First Settlers on The North Fork of The Edisto River, S. C. The National Genealogical Society Quarterly. Vol. 73, page192.

[3] Hendrix, Ge Lee Hendrix. The First Settlers on The North Fork of The Edisto River, S. C. The National Genealogical Society Quarterly. Vol. 73, page 179.

[4] Hendrix, Ge Lee Hendrix. The First Settlers on The North Fork of The Edisto River, S. C. The National Genealogical Society Quarterly. Vol. 73, page 193.

[5] Giessendanner Records. In Salley, A.S., Jr. 1898. The History of Orangeburg County, South Carolina, from Its First Settlement to the Close of the Revolutionary War. Orangeburg, S.C.; reprinted Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc., Baltimore, Maryland, 1994. Page 96.

[6] Giessendanner Records. In Salley, A.S., Jr. 1898. The History of Orangeburg County, South Carolina, from Its First Settlement to the Close of the Revolutionary War. Orangeburg, S.C.; reprinted Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc., Baltimore, Maryland, 1994. Page 107.

[7] Giessendanner Records. In Salley, A.S., Jr. 1898. The History of Orangeburg County, South Carolina, from Its First Settlement to the Close of the Revolutionary War. Orangeburg, S.C.; reprinted Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc., Baltimore, Maryland, 1994. Page 107.

[8] Giessendanner Records. In Salley, A.S., Jr. 1898. The History of Orangeburg County, South Carolina, from Its First Settlement to the Close of the Revolutionary War. Orangeburg, S.C.; reprinted Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc., Baltimore, Maryland, 1994. Page 125.

[9] Giessendanner Records. In Salley, A.S., Jr. 1898. The History of Orangeburg County, South Carolina, from Its First Settlement to the Close of the Revolutionary War. Orangeburg, S.C.; reprinted Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc., Baltimore, Maryland, 1994. Page 125.

[10] State Plats. Series No. S213192. Vol. 0038. Page 00172. Item 01. Date 1800/12/08. South Carolina Department of Archives and History.

[11] Colonial Memorials. Vol. 2, Page 520. South Carolina Department of Archives and History.

[12] Hendrix, Ge Lee Hendrix. The First Settlers on The North Fork of The Edisto River, S. C. The National Genealogical Society Quarterly. Vol. 73, page 191.

[13] Series Number S213019. Vol. 0038. Page 00526. Items 02 and 03. Date 1705/09/15. South Carolina Department of Archives and History.

[14] Moore, Caroline T., compiler and editor. Records of the Secretary of the Province of South Carolina 1692- 1721. Pp. 323-324.

[15] Weir, Robert M. 1969. Muster Rolls of the South Carolina Granville and Colleton County Regiments of Militia, 1756. The South Carolina Historical Magazine. Vol. 70 (4): 238.

[16] Easterby, J. H., ed. 1961. The Colonial Records of South Carolina. The Journal of the Commons House of Assembly January 19, 1748-June 29, 1748. Columbia: South Carolina Archives Department. Page 104, 382, 386.

[17] Easterby, J. H., ed. 1961. The Colonial Records of South Carolina. The Journal of the Commons House of Assembly January 19, 1748-June 29, 1748. Columbia: South Carolina Archives Department. Pages 131, 155, 156.

[18] Easterby, J. H., ed. 1962. The Colonial Records of South Carolina. The Journal of the Commons House of Assembly March 28, 1749-March 19, 1750. Columbia: South Carolina Archives Department. Pages 355, 419, 456.

[19] Olsberg, R. Nicholas, ed. 1974. The Colonial Records of South Carolina. The Journal of the Commons House of Assembly 23 April 1750-31 August 1751. Columbia: South Carolina Archives Department. Pages 80, 122.

Lipscomb, Terry W. and R. Nicholas Olsberg, eds. 1974. The Colonial Records of South Carolina. The Journal of the Commons House of Assembly 23 April 1750-31 August 1751. Columbia: South Carolina Archives Department. Pages 60, 90, 101.

[20] Mullins, Phillip. 2006. Leonard Vernadeau: Hide Trader and Professional Soldier and Farmerhttp://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.com/~guinevere60/varnado/pafn01.htm#8872

[21] Jervey, Elizabeth H. 1942. Abstracts from Records of Court of Ordinary 1764-1771. South Carolina Historical and Genealogical Magazine. Vol. XLIII (4): 243.

Holcomb, Brent H. 1977. Probate Records of South Carolina, Vol. 3: Journal of the Court of Ordinary 1764-1771. Easley: Southern Historical Press.  . Pages 78, 96, 102, 103, 106, 108.

[22] McDowell, William L. Jr. 1970. Documents Relating to Indian Affairs 1754-1765. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press for the South Carolina Department of Archives and History. Pp. 35-37.

[23] Cashin, Edward J. 1992. Lachlan McGillivray, Indian Trader. The Shaping of the Southern Colonial Frontier. Athens and London: The University of Georgia Press.

[24] Charleston Deed Book Y-5, 365-6

Colonial Plats. Series No. S213182. Vol. 0036. Page 00003. Item 01. Date 1796. South Carolina Department of Archives and History.

[25] Waters, Margaret G. 2002. A Preliminary Study of the Colonial Landowners of Orangeburgh Towonship, SC 1733:1749. Savannah: Waters.

[26] Benz, Rosa Schudel. 1933. Der appenzellische Landhandel 1732-1735. Zeitschrift für Schweizerische Geschichte Vol. 13:65-110.

Schelbert, Leo, ed., and Rappolt, Hedwig, translator. 1996. American Experienced: Eighteenth and Nineteenth Century Accounts of Swiss Immigrants to the United States. Rockport: Picton Press.

[27] Plats. Series No. S213184. Vol. 0008. Page 00608. Item 03. Date 1737/10/25. SCDAH.

Grants. Series No. S213019 Vol. 0042 Page 00096 Item 00 Date 1739/12/14. SCDAH.

[28] Letter to Dr. Stiles, 10 Dec 1768. Stiles MSS. Yale University Library.

[29] Colonial Records of Georgia. XXX: 598-599.

[30] Howe, George. 1870. History of the Presbyterian Church in South Carolina. Columbia: Duggie & Chapman. P. 266.

[31] Moore, Caroline T., Ed. 1964. Abstracts of the Wills of the State of South Carolina. Vol. II 1740-1760. Columbia: R. L. Bryan. Page 102.

[32] History of the Synod Committee. 1971. A History of the Lutheran Church in South Carolina. Columbia: South Carolina Synod of the Lutheran Church in America. Pp. 55-58.

[33] Hazelius, Ernest L. 1846. History of the American Lutheran Church: From its commencement in the year of our Lord 1685, to the year 1842. Zanesville, Ohio: Edwin C. Church.

[34] History of the Synod Committee. 1971. A History of the Lutheran Church in South Carolina. Columbia: South Carolina Synod of the Lutheran Church in America. P. 56.

[35] History of the Synod Committee. 1971. A History of the Lutheran Church in South Carolina. Columbia: South Carolina Synod of the Lutheran Church in America. Pp. 55-57.

[36] Howe, George. 1870. History of the Presbyterian Church in South Carolina. Columbia: Duggie & Chapman. P. 266.

[37] Hawes, Lilla Mills, ed. 1989. The Journal of the Reverend John Joachim Zubly A.M., D.D. March 5 1770 through June 22, 1781. Georgia Historical Society Collections, Volume XXI. Savannah: The Georgia Historical Society. Pages 7,8,9, 11, 15, 31, 33.

[38] Hawes, Lilla Mills, ed. 1989. The Journal of the Reverend John Joachim Zubly A.M., D.D. March 5 1770 through June 22, 1781. Georgia Historical Society Collections, Volume XXI. Savannah: The Georgia Historical Society. Pages 5, 6, 7.

[39] Butterfield, John and L. H. Adams. 1961. Diary and Autobiography of John Adams. Volume 2: Diary, 1771-1781. Cambridge: Belknap (Harvard) Press.

[40] Moore, Caroline T., Ed. 1964. Abstracts of the Wills of the State of South Carolina. Vol. II 1740-1760. Columbia: R. L. Bryan. Pp. 331-332.